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SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences is a monthly multidisciplinary academic journal supervised by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and co-sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China. Its primary mission is to encourage communication of basic and innovative research results of high quality in the fields of earth sciences, especially focusing on breakthroughs by the Chinese scientists. The subject areas featured include geo- logy, geochemistry, geophysics, space science, geography, environmental science, atmospheric science and oceanography. All papers should be intelligible for a broad scientific audience.
Contributions are also invited from researchers all over the world.
SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences is indexed by Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index Expanded (Sci- Search), Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, INSPEC, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), EBSCO, CSA, ProQuest, CAB International, Academic OneFile, ASFA, CAB Abstracts, Current Contents/Physical, Chemical and Earth Sciences, Earthquake Engineering Abstracts, EI-Compendex, Gale, Geobase, GeoRef, Global Health, OCLC, Petroleum Abstracts, SCImago, Summon by ProQuest, Zoological Record.
Papers published in SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences include:
Research paper reports on important original results in all areas of earth sciences.
Review summarizes representative results and achieve- ments in a particular topic or an area, comment on the current situation, and advise on the research directions, which should be based on or closely related with the author’s own research work.
Progress introduces and comments on the substantial advance and its importance in the fast-developing areas.
News Focus reports the novel and innovative findings in earth sciences (approximately 3–5 pages).
Discussion comments on the contributions published in SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences within the previous one year. The authors of the original paper are given an opportunity to reply. Comment and reply are peer reviewed and never more than 6 printed pages.
How to submit
To submit a manuscript, please visit the website at http://mc03.manuscriptcentral.com/sces. For a new user, please register an “Author Account”, and then submit a manuscript following the guidance.
Please introduce the research background, innovation and scientific value of your work, as well as your latest publications in a cover letter when submitting. The name, affiliation, phone number and e-mail address of the corresponding author are required. The authors may recommend 3–8 qualified reviewers and/or request the exclusion of specific reviewers. An informative cover letter is considered helpful for editors and reviewers to make evaluation of your paper.
Poor English expression of a submitted manuscript may lead to the final rejection.
File format: single columned, A4 size paper, 11-point Times New Roman font, 1.5-spaced text throughout, with figures and tables inserted in the text.
Reviewing policy
All submissions will be reviewed by referees selected by the editorial board. The decision of acceptance or rejection of a manuscript is made by the editorial board based on the referees’ reports. The entire review process may take 60 to 90 days, and the editorial office will inform the author of the decision as soon as the process is completed. If the editorial board fails to make a decision within 90 days, the authors should contact with the managing editor.
Ethical responsibilities of authors
This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.  
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which includes:
The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.
The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”)).
A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publish- ing”).
No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions.
No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the authors own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.
Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.
Consent to submit has been received from all co-authors before the work is submitted and the corresponding author is responsible for having ensured that this agreement has been reached.
In addition:
If there is a suspicion of misconduct, the journal will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and given an opportunity to address the issue. If misconduct has been established beyond reasonable doubt, this may result in the Editor-in-Chief’s implementation of the following measures, including, but not limited to:
If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.
If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note.
The author’s institution may be informed.
Authorship
Authorship should be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work, and every author has responsibility for the data and argument mentioned in the paper. The corresponding author must have obtained permission from all authors for the submission of each version of the paper and for any change in authorship. In addition: changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript;requests to add or delete authors at revision stage or after publication is a serious matter, and may be considered only after receipt of written approval from all authors and detailed explanation about the role/ deletion of the new/deleted author. The decision on accepting the change rests with the Editor-in-Chief of the journal; upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc.
Copyright
A completed form assigning copyright to Science China Press must be returned to the SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences Office when the paper is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article (in various languages), including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or other reproductions of similar nature. The Copyright Transfer Statement is available at www.scichina.com.
Disclosure of potential conflict of interests
Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Although an author may not feel there are conflicts, disclosure of relationships and interests affords a more transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of real or perceived conflicts of interests is a perspective to which the readers are entitled and is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:
Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
Honoraria for speaking at symposia
Financial support for attending symposia
Financial support for educational programs
Employment or consultation
Support from a project sponsor
Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
Multiple affiliations
Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work
In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.
The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list.
See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This work was supported by X (Grant No. X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state:
Conflict of Interest:The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
After acceptance
For the paper with a great breakthrough result, quick publication will be arranged. After typesetting, page proof is usually sent electronically as email attachments to the corresponding author. The proof plus any minor corrections must be returned to the managing editor within 72 hours. Failure to do this will result in delays in publication. Each accepted paper will be charged by publication fee.
After publication
Authors will be presented two sample copies. If offprints and more sample copies are required, please contact the managing editor and pay the extra fee. The full text in English opens free to the readers in China at www.scichina.com or earth.scichina.com, and the full text in English is available to overseas readers at link.springer.com.
Contact
Editorial Office of SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences
Science China Press
16 Donghuangchenggen North Street
Beijing 100717, China
Tel: +86 10 64015883
Fax: +86 10 64016350
Email: geo@scichina.org
Manuscript format
Contributions are required of a concise, focused account of the findings and reliable essential data. They should be well organized and written clearly and simply, avoiding exhaustive tables and figures. Authors are advised to use internationally agreed nomenclature, express all measurements in SI units, and quote all the relevant references.
Title: Titles must be limited to no more than 20 words, and should be concise, indexable, and informative for a broad scientific audience. Authors should avoid using colons, questions, nonstandard abbreviations, etc. in titles.
Author(s): Family names are written in upper case, and they appear before given names. The email address of the corresponding author is required.
Author affiliation: The affiliation should be the institution where the work was done. Complete addresses are required with post codes.
Abstract: An abstract is a summary of the content of the manuscript. It should briefly describe the research purpose, method, result and conclusion. The extremely professional terms, special signals, figures, tables, chemical structural formula, and equations should be avoided here, and citation of references is not allowed.
Keywords: A list of three to eight keywords should follow the abstract. The chosen keywords are required to reflect the theme of a manuscript.
Text: A paper should begin with a brief introduction of the significance of the author’s research. Nomenclature, signal and abbreviation should be defined at their initial appearance. All the figures and tables should be numbered in numerical order.
Introduction: Being the most important part of an article, the introduction introduces the relevant research background and the progress in 2 or 3 years, then presents the problem to be solved in this article, and finally briefly describes the method adopted in this work. Before the end, the aim of the research should be mentioned. Subtitle is forbidden in this part, and introduction of the article structure is considered unnecessary.
Materials and method: This part introduces the materials, method and experimental procedure of the author’s work, so as to allow others to repeat the work published based on this
clear description.
Discussion and conclusions: Conclusions should be derived from the observation and experimental results, and comparison with other relevant results is considered helpful to further proving the results. Repeated data should be avoided, and conclusions and suggestions are required to be clearly expressed. New hypotheses and recommendations may be proposed when warranted.
Figures and tables: Figures and tables should be numeri- cally numbered, inserted in the text, and cited in order within the text. The figures should have resolution not lower than 600 dpi and clear lines of 5 px, with signals and letters in Arial at 7 pt. A space should always be maintained between the variable and the unit.
Equations: An equation is numerically numbered (Arabic numeral), and has the number put on its right side.
Acknowledgements: The author expresses his/her thanks to the people helping with this work, and acknowledges the valuable suggestions from the peer reviewers. Financial support appears here, with grant number(s) following. The full title of each fund is required. 
References: Reference citation is regarded as an important indicator of the paper quality. If the relevant references, especially the results published in 2 to 3 years are not cited in the paper, or most citations are from the author’s publications, the editor will consider this paper unattractive. The author-year system is used in the text. References should be cited in text using author name(s) and the date of publication.
Reference format
1. For an author’s name, full spelling of family name appears before abbreviation of given name, with a spacing in the middle. 
2. The article title should be identified by an initial capital letter with the remainder of the title in lowercase.
3. For correct abbreviations of journal titles, refer to ISO, e.g., Sci Bull for Science Bulletin, Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci for Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, Sci China Earth Sci for SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences.
4. For books and proceedings, the initial letter is capitalized for all the notional words and for function words with more than 4 letters.
5. The publications in languages with non-Latin alphabets should be translated into English, and a notation such as “(in Chinese)” must be added behind the title of the article or book.
6. Do not forget to list the editor names of the proceedings, the publisher, the publishing address, and the beginning and terminating pages.
7. Unpublished materials or the papers to appear but without volume number cannot be cited as references, ex-
cept for the one with DOI.
Reference examples are given as follows:
• Journal
Hermann J, Spandler C, Hack A, Korsakov A V. 2006. Aqueous fluids and hydrous melts in high-pressure and ultra-high pressure rocks: Implications for element transfer in subduction zones. Lithos, 92: 399–417
Payne D K, Sullivan M D, Massie M J. 1996. Women’s psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol, 23(Suppl 2): 89–97
• Monograph
Norman I J, Redfern S J. 1996. Mental Health Care for Elderly People. New York: Churchill Livingstone
• Proceedings
Polito V S. 1983. Calmodulin and calmodulin inhibitors: Effect on pollen germination and tube growth. In: Mulvshy D L, Ottaviaro E, eds. Pollen: Biology and Implication for Plant Breeding. New York: Elsevier. 53–60
Sun S, Li J L, Lin J L, Wang Q C, Chen H H. 1991. Indosinides in China and the consumption of Eastern Paleotethys. In: Müller D W, McKenzie J A, Weissert H, eds. Controversies in Modern Geology. London: Academic Press. 363–384
• Conference proceedings
Minor H E. 2000. Spillways for high velocities. In: Zurich V E, Minor H E, Hager W H, eds. Proceedings of International Workshop on Hydraulics of Stepped Spillways, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 3–10
• Dissertation
Tang H J. 2002. Ecological studies on phytoplankton of the shallow, eutrophic Lake Donghu. Dissertation for Doctoral Degree. Wuhan: Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
• Technical report
Phillips N A. 1979. The Nested Grid Model. NOAA Technical Report NWS22
• User manual
Bhandarkar M, Brunner R, Chipot C, Dalke A, Dixit S, Grayson P, Gullingsrud J, Gursoy A, Hardy D,  Hénin J, Humphrey W, Hurwitz D, Krawetz N, Kumar S, Nelson M, Phillips J, Shinozaki A, Zheng G, Zhu F. 2008. NAMD User’s Guide Version 2.6
• Software
Ludwig K R. 2003. ISOPLOT 3.00: A Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel. California: Berkeley Geochronology Center
• CD
Anderson S C, Poulsen K B. 2002. Anderson’s Electronic Atlas of Hematology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Wilkins
Subscription information
ISSN print edition: 1674-7313
ISSN electronic edition: 1869-1897
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Email: geo@scichina.org
Tel: +86 10 64015883
Fax: +86 10 64016350
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Address: SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, 16 Donghuangchenggen North Street, Beijing, China (100717)
Tel: 010-64015883   E-Mail: geo@scichina.org